- Something you have (physical keycard, USB stick, etc.) or have access to (email, SMS, fax, etc.)
- Something you are (fingerprint, retina scan, voice recognition, etc.)
- Something you know (password or pass-phrase).
Website Password Policy
While the process seems straightforward, organization should never take choosing passwords lightly as it will significantly affect the user experience, customer support volume, and the level of security/fraud. The fact is users will forget their passwords, pick easy passwords, and in all likelihood share them with others (knowingly and unknowingly). Allowing users to choose their password should be considered an opportunity to set the tone for how a website approaches security, which originates from solid business requirements.
Defining an appropriate website password policy is a delicate balancing act between security and ease-of-use. Password policies enforce the minimum bar for password guessability, how often they may be changed, what they can’t be, and so on. For example, if a user could choose a four-character password, and they would if they could, using lower case letters (a through z), an attacker could theoretically try them all (26^4 or 456,976) in roughly 24 hours at only 5 guesses a second. This degree of password guessing, also known as a brute-force attack, is plausible with today’s network and computing power and as a result far too weak by most standards.
On the opposite end of the spectrum, a website could enforce 12-character passwords, that must have upper and lowercase letters, special characters, and be changed every 30 days. This password policy definitely makes passwords harder to guess, but would also likely suffer from a user revolt due to increased password recovery actions, customer support calls, not to mention more passwords written down. Obviously this result defeats the purpose of having passwords to begin with. The goal for a website password policy is finding an acceptable level of security to satisfy users and business requirements.
In general practice on the Web, passwords should be no shorter than six characters in length, while systems requiring a higher degree of security consider eight or more advisable. There are some websites that limit the length of passwords that their users may choose. While every piece of user-supplied data should possess a maximum length, this behavior is counter-productive. It’s better to let the user choose their password length, then chop the end to a reasonable size when it’s used or stored. This ensures both password strength and a pleasant user experience.
Even with proper length restrictions in place, passwords can often still be guessed in a relatively short amount of time with dictionary-style guessing attacks. To reduce the risk of success, it’s advisable to force the user to add at least one uppercase, number, or special character to their password. This exponentially increases the number of passwords available and reduces the risk of a successful guessing attack. For more secure systems, it’s worth considering enforcing more than one of these options. Again, this requirement is a balancing act between security and ease-of-use.
If you let them, users will choose the simplest and easiest to remember password they can. This will often be their name (perhaps backwards), username, date of birth, email address, website name, something out of the dictionary, or even “password.” Analysis of leaked Hotmail and MySpace passwords show this to be true. As was the case In just about every case, websites should prevent users from selecting these types of passwords as they are the first targets for attackers. As reader @masterts has wisely said, "I'd gladly take "~7HvRi" over "abc12345", but companies need good monitoring (mitigating controls) to catch the brute force attacks."
During account registration, password recovery, or password changing processes, modern websites assist users by providing a dynamic visual indication of the strength of their passwords. As the user types in their password, a strength meter dynamically adjusts coinciding with the business requirements of the website. The Microsoft Live sign-up Web page is an excellent example:
Notice how the password recommendations are clearly stated to guide the user to selecting a stronger password. As the password is typed in and grows in strength, the meter adjusts:
When passwords are entered, any number of user errors may occur that prevent them from being typed in accurately. The most common reason is “caps lock” being turned on, but whitespace is also problematic as well. The trouble is users tend not to notice because their password is often behind asterix characters that defend against malicious shoulder surfers. As a result, users will mistakenly lock their accounts from too many failed guesses, send in customer support emails, or resort to password recovery. Either way it makes for a poor user experience.
What many websites have done is resort to password normalization functions, meaning they’ll automatically lowercase, remove whitespace, and snip the length of passwords before storing them. Some may argue that doing this counteracts the benefits of character-set enforcement. While this is true, it may be worth the tradeoff when it comes to benefiting the user experience. If passwords are still 6 characters in length and must contain a number, then backed by an acceptable degree of anti-brute force and aging measures, there should certainly be enough strength left in the system to thwart guessing attacks.
Storing passwords is a bit more complicated than it appears as important business decisions need to be made. The decision is, “Should the password be stored encrypted or not?” and there are tradeoffs worth considering. Today’s best-practice standards say that passwords should always be stored in a hash digest form where even the website owner cannot retrieve the plain text version. That way in the event that the database is either digitally or physically stolen, the plain text passwords are not. The drawback to this method is that when users forget their passwords they cannot be recovered to be displayed on screen or emailed to them, a feature websites with less strict security requirements enjoy.
If passwords are to be stored, a digest compare model is preferred. To do this we take the user’s plain text password, append it to a random two-character (or greater) salt value, and then hash digest the pair.
password_hash = digest(password + salt) + salt
The resulting password hash, plus the salt appended to the end in plain text, is what will get stored in the user’s password column of the database. This method has the benefit that even if someone stole the password database they cannot retrieve the passwords -- this was not the case when PerlMonks was hacked. The other benefit, made possible by salting, is that no two passwords will have the same digest. This means that someone with access to the password database can’t tell if more than one user has the same password.
There are several types of brute-force password-guessing attacks, each designed to break into user accounts. Sometimes they are conducted manually, but these days most are automated.
1. Vertical Brute-Force: One username, guessing with many passwords. The most common attack technique forced on individual accounts with easy to guess passwords.
2. Horizontal Brute-Force: One password, guessing with many usernames. This is a more common technique on websites with millions of users where a significant percentage of them will have identical passwords.
3. Diagonal Brute-Force: Many usernames, guessing with many passwords. Again, a more common technique on websites with millions of users resulting in a higher chance of success.
4. Three Dimensional Brute-Force: Many usernames, guessing with many passwords while periodically changing IP-addresses and other unique identifiers. Similar to a diagonal brute-force attack, but intended to disguise itself from various anti-brute force measures. Yahoo has been show to have been enduring this for of brute-force attack.
Depending on the type of brute-force attack, there are several mitigation options worth considering, each with its own pros and cons. Selecting the appropriate level of anti-brute-force will definitely affect the overall password policy. For example, a strong anti-brute-force system will slow down guessing attacks to the point where password strength enforcement may not need to be so stringent.
Before anti-brute-force systems are triggered, a threshold needs to be set for failed password attempts. On most Web-enabled systems five, 10, or even 20 guesses is acceptable. It provides the user with enough chances to get their password right in case they forget what it is or typo several times. While 20 attempts may seem like too much room for guessing attacks to succeed, provided password strength enforcement is in place, it really is not.
Passwords should be periodically changed because the longer they are around, the more likely they are to be guessed. The recommended time between password changes will vary from website to website, anywhere from 30-365 days is typical. For most free websites like WebMail, message boards, or social networks, 365 days or never is reasonably acceptable. For eCommerce websites receiving credit cards, every six months to a year is fine. For higher security needs or an administrator account, 30-90 days is more appropriate. All of these recommendations assume an acceptable password strength policy is being enforced.
For example, let’s say you are enforcing a minimalist six-character password, with one numeric, and no simple passwords allowed. In addition, there is a modest anti-brute-force system feasibly limiting the amount of password guessing attempts an attacker can place on a single account to 50,000 per day (1,500,000 per mo. / 18,000,000 per yr.). That means for an attacker to exhaust just 1% of the possible password combinations, 6^36 (a-z and 0-9) or 2,176,782,336, it would take a little over a year to complete.
Minimum Strength Policy
After everything is considered, the following should be considered the absolute minimum standard for a website password policy. If your website requires additional security, these properties can be increased.
Minimum length: six
Choose at least one of the following character-set criteria to enforce:
- Must contain alpha-numeric characters
- Must contain both upper-case and lower-case characters
- Must contain both alpha and special characters
Simple passwords allowed: No
Aging: 365 days
Storage: 2-character salted SHA-256 digest